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Adhesives

Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.

Antistatic Agents

Chemical compounds applied to materials to reduce their retention of an electrostatic charge.

Agrochemicals

Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.

Biomedical and Dental Materials

Substances used in biomedicine or dentistry predominantly for their physical, as opposed to chemical, properties.

Coloring Agents

Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.

Cosmetics

Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)

Disinfectants

Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Flame Retardants

Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.

Flavoring Agents

Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.

Food Additives

Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.

Hygroscopic Agents

Materials that readily absorb moisture from their surroundings.

Laboratory Chemicals

Chemicals necessary to perform experimental and/or investigative procedures and for the preparation of drugs and other chemicals

Lubricants

Materials that readily absorb moisture from their surroundings. Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION. They are typically LIPIDS, and include lipophilic lotions, but not EYEDROPS which are aqueous, nor SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS which are amphiphilic surfactants.

Oxidants

Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).

Pesticides

Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.

Plasticizers

Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.

Protective Agents

Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.

Solvents

Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant and Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Sequestering Agents

Compounds that bind to and reduce the biological availability of a chemical or pharmaceutical agent.

Surface-Active Agents

Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.

Sweetening Agents

Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Viscoelastic Substances

Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.